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Basics & Theory

CMHC: Micro Apartments
CMHC describes micro apartments, an interesting option for those who are seeking to get a foot on the property ladder and would otherwise be unable to in locations where soaring prices have put homes out of their reach. (PDF)

Wikipedia: Types Of Houses & Apartments
Wikipedia online encyclopaedia explains the different types of houses & apartments, including multifamily, their characteristics, and offers pictures and links to more information, including architecture and building design.
Industry Information

Multi-Housing News: 2019 Excellence Award Winners
Multi-Housing News describes winners of their 2019 Excellence Awards, that recognize the multifamily industry's most noteworthy people, companies and properties.

NAHB: Multifamily Pillars of the Industry Awards
US National Association of Home Builders annual Multifamily Pillars of the Industry Awards honor excellence in apartment and condo design, development, marketing and management, and provide a showcase of future trends and innovation in multifamily housing.

NEEA: Study Of Multi Family Construction Characteristics & Practices
US Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, multifamily residential new construction building characteristics report, examines characteristics such as appliances, equipment, lighting and duct testing in multifamily residential new construction using a representative sample of occupied buildings constructed in 2004 and 2005. (PDF)
Information Sources

BD&C: Large Buildings Industry Magazine
Building Design & Construction Magazine on commercial, industrial, institutional and multifamily buildings, covers projects, trends, innovations, new technology and products.

Building Performance Community: Online Multifamily Buildings Group
Building Performance Community Multifamily Buildings Group provide an online venue to share experiences on cost effective audit & retrofit strategies and analysis tool needs for multifamily buildings.

CMHC: Fact Sheets On Highrise & Multiples Building Technologies
CMHC Highrise & Multiples Innovation Group covers construction, operation, maintenance & repair, products, and issues.

MFE: Multifamily Industry Magazine From Hanley Wood
US Multifamily Executive, a national industry publication for senior-level executives responsible for owning, managing, developing and investing in multifamily housing units.

Multi Housing News: Magazine For Multifamily Industry
Multi Housing News, a multifamily housing industry magazine, provides news and analysis of the events shaping the multi-housing industry.

NMHC: US National Multi Housing Council
US National Multi Housing Council is the place where the leaders of the apartment industry come together to guide their future success. With the industryís most prominent and creative leaders at the helm, NMHC provides a forum for insight, advocacy and action that enable both members and the communities they build to thrive.
Issues & Performance

BC Housing: Design vs Actual Performance in Social Housing Buildings
BC Housing report The Design vs Actual Energy Performance in Social Housing Buildings examines the differences between how buildings performed in energy models compared to actual performance. By collecting LEED energy models and more than two years of energy utility data, the research investigated ten LEED Gold certified social housing buildings in Victoria and Vancouver.

BC Housing: Energy Requirements For Multi-Family Building Enclosures
BC Housing bulletin describes energy performance requirements for the building enclosure and compliance paths for multi-unit residential buildings under ASHRAE 90.1. (PDF)

BC Housing: Energy Use In Mid To High-Rise Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
BC Housing bulletin Energy Use in Mid to High-Rise Multi-Unit Residential Buildings describes how energy is used in MURBs. (PDF)

BC Housing: Greenhouse Gas Implications Of HVAC Upgrades In Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
BC Housing report Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings explores approaches for reducing greenhouse gas emissions through heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning upgrades in multi-unit residential building in British Columbia. (PDF)

BC Housing: Reducing Energy Use In Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
BC Housing bulletin Reducing Energy Use In Multi-Unit Residential Buildings provides an overview of where energy is consumed, and what can be done to reduce the energy consumption and lower monthly energy bills for owners, occupants and strata corporations. (PDF)

BCBEC: Online Video On Building Smart With Energy Efficiency
BC Building Envelope Council online video of their Building Smart With Energy Efficiency workshop focuses on energy efficiency in new and retrofit buildings. Industry leaders provided insights into key issues, including insulation strategies, high performance walls and energy-efficiency code requirements, and examined some of the challenges and options being explored in multi-unit residential and institutional buildings.

BOMA: Vancouver Towers First BOMA BESt Level 1 Certified Multi Residential
Energy Management magazine article describes the Metropolitan Towers in Vancouver as the first multi-unit residential building to receive BOMA BESt Level I certification in the Lower Mainland by the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) of Canada.

Building Science: Air Sealing & Compartmentalizing Townhouses & Row Houses
Building Science article Air Sealing and Compartmentalizing Townhouses and Row Houses describes why it's not easy to separate townhouses and row houses from one another, and from garages, and of course from the outside.

Building Science: Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Retrofit
Building Science report Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit summarizes a retrofit of a three-story brick multifamily row house. Research included finding the combination of measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners. (PDF)

Building Science: Eco Village Cleveland: Sustainable Townhouse Project
Building Science provides information on this Building America project of sustainabile townhouses featuring energy efficiency, resource efficiency, and durability, but not without affordability.

Building Science: Occupied Energy Retrofit Of Uninsulated Cold Climate Multifamily Housing
Building Science research report focuses on the airflow control and window replacement measures implemented as part of the renovations to the low-rise apartment buildings.

Building Science: Ventilation To Solve Moisture Problems In Midrise Housing
Building Science describes why multifamily public and low-income housing have particular problems when it comes to moisture and air pollutants, and how proper ventilation can address mould issues in midrise housing. (PDF)

California Gov: Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage Of Apartments & Commercial Buildings
California government research showed commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single¬Ā]family houses, per unit of building envelope area. (PDF)

CMHC: Achieving High Performance Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
CMHC online series of infographics in Achieving High Performance Multi-Unit Residential Buildings highlights opportunities in key performance categories. (PDF)

CMHC: Adapting Low-Rise Residential Buildings
CMHC online guide Adapting Low-Rise Residential Buildings will help building owners and managers make barrier-free renovation decisions to walk-up apartment buildings. Accessibility barriers common to low-rise buildings are identified, together with recommended solutions. (PDF)

CMHC: Air Leakage Control for High-Rise Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
CMHC online manual Air Leakage Control for Multi-Unit Residential Buildings provides guidance to air leakage control contractors on how to reduce air leakage in existing high-rise, multi-unit residential buildings. It covers where, how and why MURBs leak, practical guidance for property managers to identify when a building is experiencing air leakage-related problems, and some guidance in selecting and using the services of an air leakage control contractor. (PDF)

CMHC: Degree Of Acoustic Comfort In Multifamily Buildings
CMHC study on a method of monitoring and evaluating the insulation of noise produced by human activity, plumbing and mechanical equipment in multifamily buildings. (PDF)

CMHC: Design Of Low-Energy & Affordable Multi-Family Buildings
CMHC case study Design Development of Low-energy and Affordable Multi-unit Residential Buildings describes innovations that could be applied to new affordable multi-unit residential buildings to increase energy efficiency while maintaining the development budget. The research looks specifically at the design process and results for one of the Bois Ellen Co-operative Residence buildings. (PDF)

CMHC: Energy & Water Efficiency For Multi-Unit Buildings
CMHC provides information on energy and water efficiency for multi-unit buildings including heating & ventilation, lighting, building envelope, DHW, renewable energy, electrical and water conservation. (PDF)

CMHC: Financial Analysis of Energy Upgrades To Multi Family Building
CMHC Research Insight, Retrofit of Multi-Unit Residential Building & Impacts on Energy Performance and Greenhouse Gas Emissions analyzes the energy, greenhouse gas, and cost impacts of energy upgrades undertaken at the time of major capital replacements. It looked at a comprehensive retrofit of a typical 1970s rental apartment building located in Victoria, BC.

CMHC: Impact Of Architectural Form On Energy Performance Of Multi-Family Buildings
CMHC report Impact of Architectural Form on the Potential Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings helps increase the understanding of the relationships between the architectural form and features of high performance multi-unit residential buildings in relation to their energy performance. (PDF)

CMHC: Indoor Environment Impact of Multi Family Rental Energy Retrofit
CMHC online Research Insight summarizes the impact that a retrofit of a multi-unit residential building to improve energy efficiency had on indoor environmental conditions for the occupants.

CMHC: Report On EIFS Retrofit Of 15-Storey Apartment Building
CMHC project evaluated a 112-unit cooperative housing complex in Toronto, retrofitted with EIFS walls to address issues of air and water leakage and general deterioration. (PDF)

CMHC: Service Life Of Multi-Unit Building Elements & Equipment
CMHC guideline for building managers and owners regarding repairs, replacement and maintenance in multifamily buildings. (PDF)

CMHC: Strategies To Achieve Low-Energy, Multi-Unit Residential Building Designs In Canada
CMHC research Energy Simulations of Strategies to Achieve Low-Energy, Multi-Unit Residential Building Designs in Different Regions of Canada assessed the insulation, glass and metal wall assemblies, airtightness and building systems characteristics for a selected multi-unit residential building to achieve very low levels of space heating energy consumption in cities across Canada. The study illustrates the extent to which the design of multi-unit residential buildings would have to be improved to reach a very high level of energy performance. (PDF)

CMHC: Study Of Indoor Environment & Energy Usage In Mid-Rise Buildings
CMHC study of air leakage, ventilation, indoor environment, and energy consumption of 3 - 5 storey Multifamily buildings in Vancouver and Ontario. (PDF)

CMHC: Study On Multifamily Building Failures
CMHC fact sheet summarizes the most frequent deficiencies reported in 15 Toronto high-rise condominiums, determines building failure trends, and identifies best practice solutions. 2001 (PDF)

DB: Recognizing Benefits Of Energy Efficiency In Multifamily Underwriting
Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation instigated this project to encourage the financial industry to scale up financing of building energy efficiency retrofits. They analyzed the 230+ building dataset to assess total savings achieved and savings as a percentage of projections. These data-driven findings suggest a rationale and methodology for underwriting against fuel savings projections. (PDF)

Energy Star: Score For Multifamily Housing In US
Energy Star Score for Multifamily Housing applies to buildings that contain 20 or more residential living units. The objective is to provide a fair assessment of the energy performance of a property relative to its peers, taking into account the climate, weather, and business activities at the property.

GBA: Compartmentalization In Multifamily Buildings
Green Building Advisor says in a large residential building, you don't want any air leaks between apartments.

GBA: Multifamily Green Building Certification Still Has Issues
Green Building Advisor says we're making progress, but for many designers and builders there is still a long way to go in multifamily green building certification.

Happy City: Toolkit for Building Sociability in Multifamily
Happy City online visual toolkit helps you identify principles, strategies and actions to boost social wellbeing in multi-family housing.

Home Energy: Blower Door Testing & Air Sealing Multifamily Buildings
Home Energy magazine describes how blower door testing and air sealing in multifamily buildings is not only possible, but important. The evidence is developing that, just as in single-family buildings, air sealing is the single most cost-effective measure in most apartment buildings.

ICP: Building Button Standardizes Data For Energy Efficiency Projects
Investor Confidence Project has launched the Building Button, a new initiative that standardizes data from commercial and multifamily energy efficiency projects. The Building Button Specification enables market participants including investors, building owners, and developers to publish, share, amalgamate, and analyze project level data.

IRC: Airborne Sound Insulation In Multi-Family Buildings
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction Update on Sound Insulation In Multi-Family Buildings reviews concepts and terminology used to describe sound insulation for the complete building system, and presents research results that illustrate how typical wood-frame construction details can determine the sound insulation actually achieved. (PDF)

IRC: Combustible Contents & Floor Areas In Multi Famly
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction survey results of combustible contents and floor areas in Canadian multi-family dwellings provides insight into types and quantity of combustible contents found in the dwellings, as well as the types of floor configurations and other information that are pertinent to fire issues. Typical furnishings that constituted a significant portion of the movable fire load were identified and possible values of fire load densities were calculated for rooms such as: kitchens, dining rooms, living rooms and bedrooms. (PDF)

J of C: Civil Engineers Study Energy Efficiency For Older Apartments
Journal of Commerce says a team of civil engineering researchers is working on a plan to increase the efficiency of aging apartment buildings by creating an outer perimeter whose temperature varies between the inside and outside temperature.

Light House: Towards Carbon Neutral High-Rise Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
Light House Sustainable Building Centre report Towards Carbon Neutral Buildings in BC: Framework for High-Rise Multi-Unit Residential Buildings, presents performance targets that would reduce the carbon footprint of new high-rise residential buildings in the Lower Mainland by up to 70%. (PDF)

LISC: Green & Healthy Property Management Guide For Multifamily
US Local Initiatives Support Corporation online Green & Healthy Property Management guide provides community partners and other owners of low-income housing with a basis for an open discussion with their property managers about green and healthy goals, implementation of those goals, and ongoing oversight of the properties' energy performance. (PDF)

Low Impact Housing: Worldwide Examples Of Low Impact Multifamily Projects
Low Impact Housing, from Abri Design, a Canadian company, provides a database of worldwide low impact multifamily projects, searchable by building type, designer, location, name, and year.

MFE: 4 Developments Leading Multifamily Green Building Efforts
Multifamily Executive Magazine describes projects that show how developers are proving multifamily is the right home for sustainability and energy conservation.7

MFE: How to Suppress Construction-Site Fires on Wood-Frame Multifamily Projects
Multifamily Executive Magazine describes a company's award-winning loss-prevention program.

MFE: Where Does LEED Stand as Focus Shifts From Design to Performance?
Multifamily Executive magazine says as green building certifications continue to proliferate, will LEED v4 offer more upshot to multifamily than its predecessors?

MHN: Energy-Efficient Design Has Moves Beyond a Marketing Hook
Multi Housing News says whether youíre talking about materials, certification, or leasing potential, energy efficiency is just as much about smart building as it is about being green.

MHN: Need For Water Efficiency In Multifamily
Multi Housing News says developers of multi-housing developments in the US are becoming increasingly aware of the need for these developments to use water much more efficiently.

MHN: Sustainability Charrette For Green Multi-Family Housing
Multi Housing News article describes how New York developer Full Spectrum held a sustainability charrette for its Old Capitol Green project. The charrette was meant to share information to enable cross-disciplinary integration, and to establish the sustainability priorities and goals for Old Capitol Green.

NAHB: US National Green Building Standard 2015 Edition
Builder Books offers a free eBook of the US National Green Building Standard 2015 Edition. A collaborative effort between the ICC and NAHB, NGBS outlines the green practices that can be incorporated into new homes, including multifamily buildings, as well as home remodeling and additions, hotels and dormitories, and residential land developments. The green practices address site and lot design, preparation and development; resource, energy, and water efficiency; indoor environmental quality; and operation, maintenance, and building owner education. (PDF)

NREL: Large Scale, Cold Climate Affordable Housing Retrofit
US National Renewable Energy Laboratory report Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits, describes a gut renovation of 126 residential units. The affordable housing community comprises 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations, and the primary goal for the project was long-term affordability, including superior energy performance and durability. (PDF)

ORNL: Multifamily Building Simulation Model
US Oak Ridge National Laboratory paper Development and Evaluation of Flexible, Multizone Multifamily Building Simulation Model describes detailed procedure of evaluation of the tool to perform an energy analysis in an existing multifamily building. (PDF)

PHIUS: Passive House Multifamily Resource Center
US Passive House Institute online Multifamily Resource Center offers information tailored for developers, architects, engineers, policy makers, and investors who are considering projects that would meet requirements of the PHIUS 2015 building standard.

RDH: Affordable & Efficient Multi Family Apartment Project
RDH Building Engineering article describes how the Ramona is a model for high-efficiency in a multifamily residential building with low incremental construction costs. The primary design objective for the Portland, Ore., apartments was to pursue a high performance building envelope as a precursor to whole-building energy efficiency. (PDF)

RDH: Air Quality In Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
RDH Building Engineering technical bulletin Air Quality in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings says ventilation in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings is typically provided by a pressurized corridor system; however, considerable evidence suggests that the ventilation design does not perform as intended, resulting in poor indoor air quality and occupant comfort complaints. (PDF)

RDH: Energy Consumption in Low-Rise Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
RDH Building Science study Energy Consumption in Low-Rise Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings was performed to understand the energy consumption in low-rise wood-frame multi-unit residential buildings and townhouse buildings in south-west BC. The purpose of the detailed analysis was to assess opportunities to improve the energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions in existing low-rise MURBs using whole building energy modelling. (PDF)

RDH: How A Deep Energy Retrofit Can Make A Difference In Your Building
RDH Building Engineering summarizes a building enclosure condition assessment followed by an in-depth energy and sustainability research project that evaluated potential energy efficiency upgrades to major building systems for a 13-storey, 37-unit residential building located in Vancouver.

RDH: Quantifying Air Leakage Control In Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
RDH Building Engineering study for CMHC provides guidance on the development of testing and measurement strategies to quantify air leakage in MURBs. (PDF)

SBC: Archetype Condominium For Energy Efficiency
Sustainable Buildings Canada report Archetype Condominium identifies ways that a condominium building might exceed the energy requirements in the Ontario Building Code (i.e. reduce energy use) by 25% or more. (PDF)

US DOE: Air Leakage Testing & Air Sealing In Existing Multifamily Units
US Department of Energy research Air Leakage Testing and Air Sealing in Existing Multifamily Units identified common air leakage pathways in one type of low-rise multifamily building common in mixed-humid climates. It recommends corrective actions for cost effectively remediating leakage. (PDF)

US DOE: Energy Retrofits For Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings In Cold Climates
US Department of Energy online Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. Benefits include reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. (PDF)

US DOE: Guideline For Air Sealing Attics In Multifamily Buildings
US Department of Energy Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings, is intended for building owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily industry. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work. The guide focuses mainly on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of building types, from low-rise wood-frame multifamily to mid and high-rise masonry apartment buildings. (PDF)

US DOE: Role Of Solar Water Heating In Multifamily Zero Energy Homes
US Department of Energy report Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes evaluated a solar domestic hot water system on a 12-unit apartment building. (PDF)

US DOE: Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Deep Energy Efficiency Retrofit
US Department of Energy report Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Deep Energy Efficiency Retrofit summarizes findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing . It shows air infiltration reductions of >60%; a savings to investment ratio of >1 from the hybrid heat pump system; and duct leakage reductions of >60% resulting from using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. The project is currently projected to achieve energy savings of 50% compared to pre-retrofit levels, and the short-term testing supports this estimate. (PDF)

US EPA: First Existing Apartment & Condo Buildings With Energy Star Certification
US Environmental Protection Agency describes the first existing multifamily housing properties to earn the new Energy Star multifamily certification for superior energy performance. EPA recognized 17 apartment and condo buildings for leading the industry in reducing energy use, increasing affordability, protecting public health, and combating climate change.

Woodworks: Achieving Passive House with Affordable Multi-Family Designs
Woodworks online video draws on experiences and insights gained from three multi-family passive house projects in cold climates. It highlights methods of reducing costsóboth upfront and long termóthat provide the budget containment necessary for the design of affordable housing.

WoodWorks: Energy Efficient Design for Wood Frame Buildings
WoodWorks online slide show presentation High Performance, Energy Efficient Design for Wood Frame Buildings provides practical information for designing wood-frame multi-family and mixed-use buildings that meet or exceed energy-efficiency objectives, and avoid common comfort-related pitfalls. (PDF)

WoodWorks: Noise & Vibration Control in Wood Frame Multi-Family Buildings
WoodWorks online slide show presentation Noise & Vibration Control in Wood Frame Multi-Family Buildings covers designing high-performing, acoustically-rated assemblies, minimizing floor vibration and methods for meeting or exceeding energy-efficiency objectives. (PDF)

BC Housing: Managing Renewals Projects In Multi-Unit Residential Buildings
BC Housing online guide Managing Renewals Projects in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings will assist owners, strata councils and co-op housing managers understand the benefits of developing a comprehensive renewals program to maintain the physical integrity and appearance of their building. (PDF)

BC Housing: New BC Building Enclosure Design Guide
BC Housing developed the New Building Enclosure Design Guide for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings. It is a resource for industry professionals involved with design and construction of building enclosures of multi-unit, wood-frame residential buildings. It explores the latest research, design and construction best practices. It addresses wood-frame construction in five and six-storey mid-rise buildings. $70 CDN

BC Housing: Online Videos & Bulletins On Maintenance Of Multifamily Buildings
BC Housing online videos and Maintenance Matters bulletins provide practical information on maintaining the building envelope of multi-unit residential building including townhouses, and low and high-rise buildings.

Building Science: Multifamily Ventilation
Building Science online slide show presentation describes considerations for multifamily ventilation. (PDF)

CMHC: Energy & Water Efficiency For Multi-Unit Buildings
CMHC provides information on energy and water efficiency for multi-unit buildings including heating & ventilation, lighting, building envelope, DHW, renewable energy, electrical and water conservation. (PDF)

CMHC: Multi-Unit Residential Building: Operations Manual for Owners & Managers
CMHC manual guides multifamily owners and managers in creating an Operation and Energy Management Plan and in making decisions concerning on-site staff or outside contractors. (PDF)

GBA: Ventilation for Passive House Multifamily Projects
Green Building Advisor weighs the pros and cons of unitized and central systems for large buildings.

GBA: Ventilation for Passive House Multifamily Projects, Part 2
Green Building Advisor weighs in on the pros and cons of heat-recovery vs. energy-recovery ventilators in multifamily Passive House projects.

Multi-Housing: How To Stage A Model Apartment Unit
Multi-Housing news describes how to stage a model apartment unit so prospective residents can picture themselves living in the apartment or to figure out if their furniture will fit in a unit at the property.

Toronto Univ: MURB Design Guide
University of Toronto online MURB Design Guide, Enhancing the Liveability and Resilience of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings, covers the design of multi-unit residential buildings in a Canadian climate, specifically mid-rise and high-rise housing typologies. (PDF)

US DOE: Multifamily Individual Heating & Ventilation Systems
US Department of Energy case study Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems describes conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums using a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. (PDF)

US DOE: Ventilation Guidance For High Performance Multifamily
US Department of Energy online Measure Guideline Ventilation Guidance For Residential High Performance Multifamily New Construction provides ventilation guidance that incorporates the requirements of the ASHRAE 62.2 2016 standard. The guideline focus is on the decision criteria for weighing cost and performance of various ventilation systems.

US DOE: Ventilation Strategies In New Construction Multifamily Buildings
US Department of Energy report Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings describes field validation of performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments. (PDF)
Product Supply

Deutsche Bank: Recognizing Benefits Of Energy Efficiency In Multifamily Underwriting
Deutsche Bank report Recognizing the Benefits of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Underwriting quantifies benefits of energy efficiency retrofits in multifamily housing. It provides empirical data on energy consumption before and after building retrofits, filling the void where the absence of evidence has stifled demand among owners and kept lenders from creating loan products to finance the cost of building improvements. In addition to illustrating how building retrofits can save energy, the study provides a framework for incorporating energy savings into lenders' underwriting standards. (PDF)
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