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Basics & Theory

About: Overview Of Tankless Water Heaters
About Home Repair tutorial describes tankless water heaters, how they work, different fuel sources and types of tankless hot water heaters, how to size the unit and issues associated with this technology.

EcoBuilding Pulse: Overview Of Tankless Water Heaters
EcoBuilding Pulse describes features and benefits of tankless water heaters, along with tips for selection and installation.

Ezine Articles: Tankless Water Heaters Are Worth It
Ezine Article by Melvin Davis says the consumer report about tankless water heaters taking 20-25 yrs to recoup your initial costs is not true. He offers some reasons why the technology makes sense, and is a good return on investment.

Fine Homebuilding: How Tankless Hot Water Heaters Work
Fine Homebuilding describes how a tankless hot water heater works and offers information on choosing and installing a tankless hot water heater.

GBA: Hybrid Tankless Water Heaters
Green Building Advisor describes a relatively new type of water heater that combines features of both tankless and storage water heaters.

How Stuff Works: How Tankless Water Heaters Work
How Stuff Works describes tankless water heaters including how they work, tankless systems, heater specifics, benefits & drawbacks, and sources of more information.

PHC News: Tankless Gas & Electric Water Heaters
Plumbing & Hydronic Contractor describes the pros, cons and cost analyses of gas and electric tankless water heaters.

PM Magazine: Tankless Water Heaters Becoming Commonplace
Plumbing & Mechanical magazine article on tankless water heaters describes how they are increasing market share, some types of units available, and key design considerations. Free registration required.

Professional Builder: Conventional Versus Tankless Water Heaters
Professional Builder magazine article covers conventional water heaters versus tankless water heaters, selecting a tankless water heater, pro's and con's, and review of several tankless water heater products.

US DOE: Tankless Or Demand-Type Water Heaters
Department of Energy describes features, benefits and considerations for tankless or demand-type water heaters.
Industry Information

Consumer Reports: New & Improved Tankless Water Heaters
Consumer Reports describes their most common past problems, and how this latest generation of tankless water heaters is addressing them.
Information Sources

JLC Forums: Tankless Water Heaters
Journal of Light Construction forum has industry members comments about selecting and installing tankless water heaters.

Tankless Water Heaters 101: Resource Site On Tankless Water Heaters
Tankless Water Heaters 101 provides information on propane, natural gas, and electric tankless water heaters.
Issues & Performance

BC Gov: Piping Insulation Required For Tankless Water Heater
BC Building Code Appeal Board has confirmed that piping insulation is required to a tankless water heater.

Building Green: Difference Between Storage & Tankless Water Heaters
Building Green says while they have higher efficiency, tankless water heaters don't make sense for most whole-house applications.

Building Science: Testing & Analysis Of Gas Tankless Water Heater
Building Science research report on tankless water heaters shows actual savings depend on the draw details because energy to heat up the internal mass depends on the time since the last draw. (PDF)

NAHB: Savings Of Electric Tankless Over Storage Water Heaters
NAHB and US National Renewable Energy Laboratory simulated energy performance of two different types of water heaters - electric storage tank and tankless - in two different types of plumbing distribution systems. Simulations showed an increase in overall system efficiency of 12% for the demand water heater with a parallel piping distribution system over the storage tank water heater with copper piping for high-use home and an increased efficiency of 26% for low-use home. Electrical energy savings of the demand water heaters with a parallel piping system over the standard tank with a tree-piping system was 34% for low-use home and 14% for high-use home. (PDF)

PHC: Drain Pans Solve Tankless Water Heater Leak Problems
Plumbing & Hydronic Contractor magazine says with a suitable drain pan any leak in the tankless system is 100 percent contained.

US DOE: Estimating Costs & Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters
US Department of Energy shows how to estimate annual operating cost of different types of water heaters, to help determine energy savings and payback period of investing in a more energy-efficient model, which will probably have a higher purchase price. It also suggests using the energy factor to determine energy efficiency of a storage, tankless, or heat pump water heater. The energy factor (EF) indicates overall energy efficiency based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day.

US DOE: Overview Of New Criteria For ENERGY STAR Water Heaters
U.S. Department of Energy has announced new ENERGY STAR criteria for water heaters. Five categories of residential water heaters will be eligible for an ENERGY STAR label: high-performance gas storage, whole-home gas tankless, advanced drop-in or integrated heat pump, solar, and gas condensing.
Procedures

ACEEE: Guide To Efficient Water Heating
American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy describes how to choose a water heating system. They cover fuel choice & sizing, comparing life-cycle costs, selecting a new system, and minimizing operating costs.

Bosch: Determining Water Flow Rate For Tankless
Bosch Tankless Blog describes how to select tankless hot water heaters based on maximum amount of hot water to meet peak demand.

Builder: Pros & Cons Of Tankless vs. Conventional Water Heaters
Builder Magazine provides pros & cons of tankless vs. conventional water heaters to help determine which system is right for your homes.

Building Science: Combinations Forced-Air Space & Tankless DHW Systems
Building Science Measure Guideline: Combinations Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems pertains to design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems used in residential buildings. (PDF)

Building Science: Tankless & Solar Hot Water Heating Integration
Building Science research project proposed how to design and install a solar hot water system that features a tankless water heater integrated with a solar hot water panel such that consistent temperature control can be achieved at the domestic taps. (PDF)

Building Science: Tankless Heaters Used In Combo Systems
Building Science online slide show summarizes field experience with tankless hot water heaters used in combination space and domestic hot water heating systems. (PDF)

Bulding Science: Combined Systems With Tankless Water Heaters
Building Science online slide show describes considerations for combining solar or condensing boilers with tankless water heaters. (PDF)

CMHC: Performance Of Retrofitting From Tank To Tankless Water Heaters
CMHC study Performance of Retrofitting from Tank to Tankless Water Heaters was initiated to better understand the impacts that retrofitting a conventional storage tank hot water heater to a gas-fired tankless heater had on water and energy consumption. Monitoring in 23 houses found an average 46 percent reduction in natural gas used for water heating after such a retrofit, and while the impacts on water consumption were more varied between households, there was an average increase in water consumption of 2 percent.

Fine Homebuilding: Maintaining & Flushing A Tankless Water Heater
Fine Homebuilding online video describes how to perform a de-scaling flush of a tankless water heater.

Fine Homebuilding: Pros & Cons Of Tank & Tankless Water Heaters
Fine Homebuilding describes how tank and tankless water heaters work, how to choose and size one to suit your needs, and how to save money and energy in the process.

Fine Homebuilding: Why Add A Tank To A Tankless Water Heater
Fine Homebuilding article says Instant water heaters save energy and offer endless hot water, but not without some problems. A small tank and a big pump can fix the flaws. (PDF)

GBA: Explaining Benefits Of A Tankless Water Heater To Your Customers
Green Building Advisor says you should understand why so many folks are in love with the benefits of tankless water heaters to learn how to sell more of them and how to better satisfy your clients.

GBA: Fixing A Tankless Hot-Water Delivery Problem
Green Building Advisor describes solutions for when new tankless water heaters take too much time for the hot water to reach the faucet.

GBA: Storage vs. Tankless Water Heaters
Green Building Advisor article compares storage tank vs. tankless hot water systems from the standpoint of energy efficiency and green building.

JLC: Installing On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters
Journal of Light Construction article by remodeler David Grubb tells contractors what they need to know about switching from a tank-type water heater to an on-demand tankless model.

JLC: Maintaining a Tankless Water Heater
Journal of Light Construction online video describes a straight-forward procedure to clean a tankless water heater and remove scale, and it works regardless of the unit manufacturer.

NRCan: Manufacturer Guide To High Performance CSA P.9 Tested Combination Systems
CanmetENERGY report A Manufacturer's Guide to High Performance CSA P.9 Tested Combination Systems provides guidance to manufacturers of condensing on-demand water heaters. It covers strategies for designing high performance combination systems for space and water heating, and information about certifying performance with CSA P.9 testing.

Plumbing & HVAC: Todays Tankless DHW Heaters
Plumbing & HVAC magazine says condensing tankless water heaters are becoming increasingly popular as the price gap with non-condensing models narrows thanks to less expensive and easier venting.

Plumbing Engineer: Talking Tankless
Plumbing Engineer magazine describes benefits, issues and considerations for tankless water heaters.

Profitable Plumbing: Tankless Water Heaters 101
Profitable Plumbing article by Scott Gregg, a Rinnai trainer, provides a background on tankless water heaters, and describes trade considerations such as location, performance, serviceability, sizing, warranties, venting, piping, flow rates, water quality, multi unit installations, and more.

US DOE: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater
US Department of Energy report Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater describes modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. (PDF)

US DOE: Combination Forced-Air Space & Tankless DHW Heating Systems
US Department of Energy report Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems provides design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water (DHW) heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings. (PDF)

US DOE: Guidelines For Transitioning To A Tankless Water Heater
US Department of Energy online Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater, provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance of tankless water heaters. (PDF)

US DOE: Sizing A New Water Heater
US Department of Energy describes how find information about how to size DHW systems including tankless or demand-type, solar, storage, and heat pump (with tank).

US DOE: Tankless Or Demand-Type Water Heaters
Department of Energy describes features, benefits and considerations for tankless or demand-type water heaters.
Product Supply

BC Gov: List Of Incentive & Rebate Programs Available In BC
BC Government LiveSmart BC programs are designed to empower BC citizens, businesses and consumers to make smarter, greener lifestyle choices. The decision to take climate action may come in the form of behaviour changes (modes of transportation, home utility usage), consumer choices (energy and fuel efficient products, home heating systems), or conservation decisions (home retrofits, business upgrades). Rebates and incentives listed here are designed to decrease your energy consumption (electricity, natural gas, motor fuel) and help you enjoy savings from lower monthly bills.

CEE: Actual Savings & Performance Of Natural Gas Tankless Water Heaters
Center for Energy and Environment study Actual Savings and Performance of Natural Gas Tankless Water Heaters monitored ten homes and found a 37% savings of water-heating energy per household (or about 6,000 kBtu per home per year) for replacing a typical natural-draft storage water heater with a tankless one. However, these savings were not enough to justify buying a tankless water heater due to the low cost of natural gas and the high installation costs. (PDF)

Consumer Reports: Are Tankless Water Heaters A Worthwhile Investment
Consumer Reports summarizes tests and surveys they did on tankless water heaters. They describe advantages and disadvantages, as well as important things to consider when purchasing a unit.

NRCan: Search For Energy Efficient Tankless Water Heaters
Natural Resources Canada provides a searchable database of Energy Star rated tankless water heaters.

Tankless Recall: Recall Of Paloma, Rheem, Ruud, Richmond Tankless Heaters
Tankless Recall provides information on the US and Canada Recall to Repair of Paloma, Rheem, Ruud, Rheem-Ruud, and Richmond indoor tankless water heaters manufactured from May 2004 through December 2006.

TecHome Builder: 10 Questions On Tankless Water Heaters
TecHome Builder helps demystify tankless water heaters and what builders and homebuyers should know.

US DOE: Assessing Energy Savings Of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits In Public Housing
US Department Of Energy report Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110-unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing. (PDF)

US DOE: Estimating Costs & Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters
US Department of Energy shows how to estimate annual operating cost of different types of water heaters, to help determine energy savings and payback period of investing in a more energy-efficient model, which will probably have a higher purchase price. It also suggests using the energy factor to determine energy efficiency of a storage, tankless, or heat pump water heater. The energy factor (EF) indicates overall energy efficiency based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day.

Wethead Media: Reviews Of Plumbing & Heating Products
Wet Head Media offers online reviews of a wide range of plumbing and heating products.
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