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Basics & Theory

Airekool: Overview Of Refrigeration Basics
Airekool online tutorial provides an overview of refrigeration basics for those who want to better understand how most air conditioning systems cool air.

Building Green: Refrigerant Cycle Air Conditioners
Building Green describes the history and operation of refrigerant-cycle air conditioners.

Energy Vanguard: What's the Name of The Outdoor Part of a Heat Pump?
Energy Vanguard looks at the basic terminology of air conditioning and heat pump systems.

GBA: Air Conditioner Basics
Green Building Advisor answers common questions about cooling equipment.

GBA: The Magic Of Cold
Green Building Advisor describes how an air conditioner uses electricity to make cold air.

HVAC School: HVAC/R Refrigerant Cycle Basics
HVAC School provides a basic overview of the refrigeration circuit and how it works. It is designed to assist a new technician or HVAC/R apprentice in understanding the fundamentals.

HVAC School: Some Important Air Conditioning Terms to Know
HVAC School says it is important that we start using these terms when speaking to one another, writing notes and diagnosing because these will translate better between systems and between A/C and Refrigeration.

HVAC School: What Willis Understood About Air Conditioning
HVAC School says many of you know that in 1906 Willis Carrier patented what is now referred to as the "First Air Conditioning System" but do you know what it was that he actually invented?

UL: Great Moments in Refrigeration History
Underwriters Laboratory online infographic takes you through refrigeration history.

US DOE: History Of Air Conditioning
US Department of Energy online History of Air Conditioning highlights several key developments in the history of air conditioning, from the first modern electrical air conditioning unit invented by Willis Carrier to the more recent advances in search of new refrigerants and non-vapor compression technologies.

US DOE: Overview Of Home Cooling
US Department of Energy describes home cooling with their Energy Saver 101 infographic.
Education & Training

ACCA: Online Courses On Air Conditioning
Air Conditioning Contractors of America offers an online education centre with courses and seminars on management and technical topics.

HRAI: Canadian Training For HVACR Industry
Heating Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Institute of Canada, provide training materials and certification programs to industry members so they can acquire the technical competence required to design and install quality HVAC systems that meet the appropriate code requirements.
Industry Information

Business Wire: Top 4 Trends Impacting Global Air Conditioning Market Through 2020
Business Wire says a new report on the global air-conditioning market identifies what the industry research firm says are the four most important trends expected to impact the industry from 2016 to 2020.
Industry Sectors

AHRI: Air-Conditioning Heating & Refrigeration Institute
Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute is the trade association representing manufacturers of air conditioning, heating and commercial refrigeration equipment. They provide information, publications, education, standards, and research for industry and consumers.
Information Sources

HVAC-Talk: Online Trade Forums On HVAC
HVAC-Talk has this great community forum if you want to ask questions or review discussions on HVAC topics? It includes forums on special HVAC-Talk events, professional member forums, general discussion forums, and training forums.

NRCan: Overview Of Air Conditioning Systems
Natural Resources Canada provides information and resources on air conditioning including types, energy efficiency regulations, room air conditioners, central, operating costs, and answers to commonly asked questions.
Issues & Performance

Contracting Business: How To Clean Up Dirty Sock Odours
Contracting Business covers possible causes and solutions for customer complaints about a dirty sock smell coming from their air conditioning system.

Energy Vanguard: Buried AC Ducts Risk Condensation in Humid Climates
Energy Vanguard says water vapor from the air condenses on air conditioning ducts in humid climates, and you have to be careful about burying ducts in attic insulation in humid climates, especially in coastal areas.

Energy Vanguard: Skin Flakes in Your Air Conditioner
Energy Vanguard says household dust, it turns out, isn't made up largely of skin flakes.

HVAC School: Does Set Point Lead to Freezing?
HVAC School discusses whether or not setting a thermostat too low can cause an air conditioning system set in cool mode to freeze.

HVAC School: Rusty Coil & Galvanic Corrosion
HVAC School says many evaporator coils and even some condenser coils will start to corrode where the galvanized steel end plates touch the copper u-bends of the coil.

HVAC School: What Causes Dirty Sock Syndrome?
HVAC School says loosely defined, dirty sock syndrome is a smell that comes from an evaporator coil, especially when it first comes on or shifts from heat to cool. The smell†comes from biological material that dries out on the coil when the system is off or in heat mode.

HVAC School: Why A/C Systems Freeze
HVAC School says the reason that frost/ice is inevitable in some A/C applications is just due to the laws of thermodynamics (moving heat).

JLC: Leaky Air-Conditioner Coil & Condensate Drain
Journal of Light Construction describes how to deal with a leaky air-conditioner coil and the condensate drain.

NRCan: Energy Star Cooling & Ventilating Equipment
Natural Resources Canada provides information and resources on Energy Star standards for cooling and ventilation equipment.

US DOE: Future Of Air Conditioning For Buildings
US Department of Energy report The Future Of Air Conditioning For Buildings characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global air conditioning (A/C) market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. It also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions.

Building America: Online Guide To Compression Cooling
Building America Solution Center online guide describes issues and considerations for design and installation of compression cooling systems.

Building Science: Adding Heating & Air Conditioning to Tuscan Villas
Building Science Corporation describes how adding central heating and air conditioning to buildings hundreds of years old and typically in ruins is an interesting proposition. Especially where the only insulations are mass walls consisting of stones, clay block and plaster coupled with clay tile roofs.

Building Science: Refrigerant Charge & Why You Should Care
Building Science provides a brief explanation of system charging, superheat and subcooling including results of improper charging.

Building Science: Refrigeration & Startup For AC Equipment Efficiency
Building Science says performance of the cooling system will be evaluated and assured through a series of measurements including: air flow, pressures, temperatures, humidity levels, and power draw. They describe procedures that should be followed for line set installation and system startup.

Energy Vanguard: 3 Reasons Your 3 Ton Air Conditioner Isn't Really 3 Tons
Energy Vanguard describes why a 3 ton (or 2 ton or whatever size you have) air conditioner may not be what you think it is even when everything's designed, installed, commissioned, and maintained perfectly.

Energy Vanguard: Air Conditioner Is More Efficient in Fall & Spring
Energy Vanguard says cooler weather reduces the cost of air conditioning in more ways than one.

Energy Vanguard: Air Conditioner Sizing Rules Of Thumb Must Die
Energy Vanguard describes issues and considerations for using rules of thumb for air conditioner sizing.

Energy Vanguard: Fan Setting Can Increase RH & Cost You Money
Energy Vanguard explains how changing the air conditioner fan setting from auto to on can cause an increase in relative humidity.

Energy Vanguard: How To Clean Out Your Air Conditioner's Condensate Line
Energy Vanguard describes how to clean out your air conditioner's condensate line.

Energy Vanguard: How To Determine The Size Of Your Central Air Conditioner
Energy Vanguard describes how to determine the size of your central air conditioner.

Energy Vanguard: Interesting Way To Freeze An Air Conditioner Coil
Energy Vanguard describes what happens if you put the air conditioner filter in improperly and then let it get too dirty.

Energy Vanguard: Simple Steps to Improve Air Conditioner Performance
Energy Vanguard says possible causes of poor performance of air conditioners can be divided into two groups: heat gain and heat removal.

Fine Homebuilding: How To Protect Air Conditioner Condenser In Winter
Fine Homebuilding online video describes a clever way to winterize an air-conditioning unit.

GBA: Designing Houses That Keep Their Cool
Green Building Advisor describes some building design and construction strategies to reduce the need for air conditioning.

GBA: Epidemic Of Duct Disease & Enclosure Problems
Green Building Advisor says most homes have problems that run deeper than the cause of the broken air conditioner.

GBA: Is It OK To Close Air Conditioner Vents In Unused Rooms?
Green Building Advisor says in most cases it is not wise to close air conditioner vents in unused rooms.

GBA: Principles For Calculating Cooling Loads
Green Building Advisor describes the principles behind cooling-load calculations used to size air-conditioning equipment.

GBA: Selecting Climate-Specific Air Conditioners
Green Building Advisor says if you live in a humid climate, you need an air conditioner that does a good job of dehumidification. But if you live in a dry climate, dehumidification is almost irrelevant, because the outdoor air is so dry.

GBA: Why Is My House So Hot?
Green Building Advisor discusses why a house with added attic insulation has air conditioning equipment that runs longer than it used to.

Home Energy: Proper Sizing Of Air Conditioners
Home Energy describes disadvantages of air conditioning system oversizing, plus tips for addressing even temperatures, drafts, quietness, and efficiency.

HPAC Magazine: Cooling Options For Hydronic Applications
HPAC magazine describes options for handling cooling for areas if hydronic cooling is not included in the design or in a retrofit situation.

HVAC School: Impacts of Decreasing Evaporator Air Flow
HVAC School says when you setup and commission comfort cooling and heating systems you need to pay more attention to airflow before worrying about the fancy controls or the refrigerant circuit.

HVAC School: Oversized Air Conditioners
HVAC School describes some oversized air conditioner symptoms, their characteristics and why making improvements to oversized HVAC it's a slippery slope.

HVAC School: Sensible Heat Ratio
HVAC School says the BTUs that go towards changing the temperature of the air are called sensible and the ones that go toward removing water from the air are called latent.

JLC: Air Conditioning for Humid Climates
Journal of Light Construction describes how air-sealing, right-sizing, and smart controls are the keys when planning air conditioning for humid climates.

NRCan: Maintaining Your Air Conditioner
NRCan online video explains how to maintain your air conditioner both inside and outside of your home.

NREL: Improved Modeling Of Residential Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps For Energy Calculations
US National Renewable Energy Laboratory report Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations presents improved modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings. (PDF)

Plumbing & HVAC: How Not to Size an Air Conditioner
Plumbing & HVAC says it is very frustrating when HVAC professionals have no idea how to properly size an air conditioner.

US DOE: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance & Replacement
US Department of Energy Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement describes efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. (PDF)

US DOE: Energy Impacts Of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners
US Department OD Energy report Energy Impacts Of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners says with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. (PDF)

US DOE: Maintaining Your Air Conditioner
US Department of Energy describes how regular maintenance extends the life of your air conditioner and helps it run as efficiently as possible.

US DOE: Retrofitting Air Conditioning & Duct Systems In Hot, Dry Climates
US Department of Energy report Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates focuses procedures for increasing sensible efficiencies through increased flow rates across the air handling unit and increased indoor coil sizes. When substantial energy improvements result in a significant reduction in design cooling loads, an older and constrictive duct system may allow higher flow rates when combined with replacing an older existing condensing unit with a smaller unit. In practice, however, existing duct systems may need replacement in most cases due to factors such as poor layout, damage, and improper design. (PDF)
Product Supply

AHRI: Directory Of Certified Air Conditioning Products
The Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute has a searchable directory of certified products and their performance ratings.

PNNL: Energy Savings Of Control Strategies For Packaged Air-Conditioning Units
US Pacific Northwest National Laboratory report Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat, says commercial building owners could save an average of 38 percent on their heating and cooling bills if they installed a handful of energy efficiency controls that make their heating, ventilation and air conditioning HVAC systems more energy efficient. (PDF)
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