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Basics & Theory

Building Science: Tech Sheet For Combo Space/Water Heating Systems
Building Science, Dr. Joe Lstiburek provides a critical review as he recommends combo systems for certain applications and points out some challenges for production builders. (PDF)
Issues & Performance

Alberta Gov: Requirements For Combo Systems
Alberta Safety Services and Plumbing and Gas Technical Council bulletin Requirements For Combination Heating Systems informs plumbing and gas industry of requirements associated with the sale and installation of dual purpose water heaters. (PDF)

CAN/CSA-P.9-11 (R2015) - Test Method For Determining The Performance Of Combined Space & Water Heating Systems
CAN/CSA-P.9-11 (R2015) - Test method for determining the performance of combined space and water heating systems (combos). This Standard describes the test procedures, test set-ups, and calculations required to determine the performance, capacities, energy consumption, and overall efficiency of gas-fired and oil-fired combined space and water heating systems (combos).

CIPH: Health & Safety Issues With Use Of Water Heaters In Hydronic Applications
Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating information bulletin on the use of water heaters in hydronic applications says water heaters are being inappropriately installed in all jurisdictions of Canada. In many instances, this is creating health and safety issues. (PDF)

CMHC: Energy Performance Of Two Gas Combo Units
CMHC report Assessment of the Energy Performance of Two Gas Combo-Heating Systems says calculated efficiencies for the two combo systems during heavy space-heating demands were well in line with the combined annual efficiency claimed by the manufacturers, and demonstrated that Combo systems can meet real-life demands for combination space- and water-heating loads in a dwelling. (PDF)

HBC: Impact of CSA P.9-11 on Combination System Design
Home Builder Canada magazine says CSA P.9-11 standards outlines a method to assess whether multiple combo system components from the same or different manufacturers are working together to derive maximum system efficiency and to provide a standard metric to compare different system approaches.

HPAC: Mixing Hydronic Heating Water With Potable Water
HPAC Magazine says installers should be aware that building a combined hydronic and potable system, whereby the potable water contacts hydronic heating components such as pipes, fan coils, valves, expansion tanks and manifolds, could create potential health and safety issues.

NRCan: Use of CSA P.9-11 to Specify Combination Space & Water Heating Systems
NRCan guide describes how to use CSA P.9-11 test results to inform the selection and specification of efficient and appropriately sized combination systems. (PDF)

Plumbing & HVAC: Combo Manufacturers Struggle To Get CSA Standard In Codes
Plumbing & HVAC says combination space heating and hot water equipment has improved dramatically since the launch of a new CSA standard five years ago. But manufacturers are wondering why the provinces have been so slow to incorporate it into their building codes.

US DOE: Controls Improve Performance of Combo Systems
US Department of Energy report Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance shows improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. (PDF)
Procedures

Building Science: Combination Systems With Air Source Heat Pump
Building Science describes their research project on the integration of a combination space and domestic hot water heating system (combi system) with a high-efficiency air source heat pump to optimize efficiency and comfort. (PDF)

Building Science: Tankless Heaters Used In Combo Systems
Building Science online slide show summarizes field experience with tankless hot water heaters used in combination space and domestic hot water heating systems. (PDF)

NRCan: Manufacturer Guide To High Performance CSA P.9 Tested Combination Systems
CanmetENERGY report A Manufacturer's Guide to High Performance CSA P.9 Tested Combination Systems provides guidance to manufacturers of condensing on-demand water heaters. It covers strategies for designing high performance combination systems for space and water heating, and information about certifying performance with CSA P.9 testing.

US DOE: Applying Water Heaters In Combo Space & DHW Systems
US Department of Energy report Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems covers eight key questions ranging from equipment and system design strategies, to laboratory and field tested performance, occupancy interactions and hot water use profiles, maintenance issues, practical plumbing perspectives, rating standards, and gaps and barriers to efficient wide-scale implementation. (PDF)

US DOE: Combined Space & Water Heating Installation & Optimization
US Department of Energy online Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization describes installation and operation of residential systems that have forced-air heating and domestic hot water functionalities. (PDF)

US DOE: Gas-Fired Tankless & Storage Water Heater Approaches To Combo Systems
US Department of Energy report Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating highlights the attributes of combo technologies that use traditional storage water heaters and tankless water heaters as their thermal engines. (PDF)

US DOE: Integrated Heating & DHW With Tankless Gas Or Electric
Building America Solution Center describes features, benefits, issues and considerations for design and installation of integrated heating and hot water with tankless gas or electric water heating.

US DOE: Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating
US Department of Energy report Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating: Field Assessment summarizes monitoring of 20 homes to characterize how combi systems performed compared to existing systems. (PDF)

US DOE: Retrofitting Forced Air Combi Systems in Cold Climate
US Department of Energy research project Retrofitting Forced Air Combi Systems: A Cold Climate Field Assessment analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. (PDF)
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