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Basics & Theory

Alliant Energy: Geothermal: How It Works
Alliant Energy, a US utility that promotes geothermal, provides an overview on how it works including sections on anatomy of a heat pump, open loop system and closed loop system.

Centre for Energy: Difference Between Earth Energy & Geothermal Energy
Centre for Energy gives a brief explanation of the difference between Geoexchange (earth energy), and geothermal energy.

CGC: Overview Of Geoexchange
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition covers key facts, animation showing how it works, installation, consumer advisory, corporate benefits, market potential, customer needs, business cases, and FAQs.

Dovetail: Geothermal 101
Dovetail report Geothermal 101: The Basics and Applications of Geothermal Energy focuses on residential applications of geothermal through the use of geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). It provides an overview of the basics of geothermal energy: how it works, how it can be used, and the advantages and disadvantages of the technology.

EESC: Overview Of Geoexchange Systems
Earth Energy Society of Canada briefly describes geoexchange components and technology including COP, cost benefits, applications, hot water heating, design, soils, loops, water quality and more.

GBA: Basics Of Ground Source Heat Pumps
Green Building Advisor podcast describes the basics of ground source heat pumps.

Geo-Enterprises: Glossary Of Terms For Geoexchange
Geo-Enterprises provides a list of the most commonly used terms so that you might have a better understanding of the technical terms that go with Geothermal technology and systems. Click on The Lingo to access glossary.

GEO: Common Questions On Geoexchange
Geothermal Exchange Organization answers common questions on geoexchange, including what it is, how it works, home owner benefits, environmental advantages and many more.

GEO: Overview Of Geoexchange Systems
Geothermal Exchange Organization explains how it works, has animated movie of system operation, slide show of heating & cooling for historic structures, commonly asked questions, and comparing heating systems.

GEO: Video Explaining Geoexchange Systems
Geothermal Exchange Organization provides this online video explaining the geoexchange concept, types of systems common styles of ground loops, and how a system operates.

HPAC: Geo Key to Delivering Renewable Energy
HPAC magazine describes features, benefits and considerations for geothermal heating systems.

IGSHPA: Overview Of Geoexchange Systems
International Ground Sources Heat Pump Association explains what geothermal is, ground source heat pumps, residential & commercial, equipment registration, FAQs, and has links to more information.

NRCan: Overview Of Ground Source Heat Pumps
Natural Resources Canada Office of Energy Efficiency covers how heat pumps work, parts, efficiency, benefits, design, installation, maintenance, operating costs, life expectancy, warranties, and more.

REW: Hidden Genius Of Geothermal HVAC Systems
Renewable Energy World describes features and considerations for planning a geothermal HVAC system.

Sustainable Sources: Clarification Of GeoExchange Terms
Sustainable Source clarifies ground source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, water source heat pumps, energy efficiency ratio, and coefficient of performance terminology.

US DOE: Overview Of Geoexchange Systems
US Department of Energy offers an explanation of the different types of geoexchange systems, loop options, benefits, selection, installation, and links to more information.
Education & Training

CGC: Canadian Certification For Geoexchange Designers & Installers
Canadian Geoexchange Coalition offers certification training across the country in four modules: driller, installer, residential designer and commercial designer.

CGC: Course For Municipal Inspectors On GeoExchange Systems
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition has released its first course specifically designed to help Municipal Inspectors and Building Officials understand and inspect GeoExchange or geothermal heat pump systems.

ITA: BC Geoexchange Driller Certification
BC Industry Training Authority offers Geoexchange Driller Certification. Geoexchange drillers set up and operate mobile equipment used to drill vertical closed-loop borehole heat exchangers to provide a heat source/sink for geoexchange heating and cooling systems.

ITABC: BC Certified Geothermal Technician
Industry Training Authority BC offers a Certified Geothermal Technician (CGT) program that gives you the skills, training, and knowledge you need to safely install and service geo-exchange heating and cooling systems in residential homes. This program is also bridged to the Heating Technician program as a possible career option.
Industry Information

CGC: 2012 Canadian Geothermal Heat Pump Industry Technology Roadmap
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition 2012 Canadian Geothermal Heat Pump Industry Technology Roadmap reflects on and analyzes the events of the last ten years. It focuses on the state of the industry, measures its progress, evaluates its capacity, and identifies new areas of development. (PDF)

CGC: State Of Canadian Geothermal Heat Pump Industry 2010
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition report on the State of the Canadian Geothermal Heat Pump Industry 2010 presents a comprehensive picture of the Canadian geoexchange industry. (PDF)

CGC: State Of Canadian Geothermal Heat Pump Industry 2011
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition statistical report The State of the Canadian Geothermal Heat Pump Industry 2011 summarizes its industry survey and market analysis. (PDF)

GeoExchange BC: Industry Conference & Trade Show
GeoExchange BC presents their Biennial International GeoExchange Conference & Trade Show. It offers regional and international speakers, trade show, technical papers, site tours, and more.

IGSHPA: Annual US Heat Pump Technical Conference & Expo
International Ground Sources Heat Pump Association presents an annual conference, training and technical workshops, and trade show.
Industry Sectors

CGC: Canadian GeoExchange Coalition
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition promotes geoexchange heating and cooling systems in the residential and commercial markets in Canada, offering information, training, certification, industry standards and public awareness.

GeoExchange BC: Industry Trade Association
GeoExchange BC is the trade association that provides information, education, training, certification and resources for the growing geoexchange and heat pump industry.

IGSHPA: International Ground Source Heat Pump Association
US International organization advances ground source heat pump (geoexchange) technology on local, state, national and international levels.

US DOE: R & D Roadmap For Geothermal Heat Pumps
US Department of Energy online Research and Development Roadmap: Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps Roadmap identifies potential activities and technical innovations that may enable substantial improvements in residential and commercial Geothermal Heat Pumps installed cost and/or efficiency. (PDF)
Information Sources

Alliant Energy: Resource Site On Geothermal Systems
US utility offers geothermal information including overview, how it works, rebates & benefits, environmental impact, case studies, and links to more resources.

CGC: Links To Geoexchange Organizations & Resources
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition offers links to industry information, organizations and resources.

CGC: Online Publications On Geothermal Heat Pump Industry
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition provides online publications to help readers with the decision to purchase and install a ground source heat pump (or geoexchange) system.

Dig The Heat: Canadian Resource Site On Geothermal & Renewable Energy
Dig The Heat is a Canadian online guide to renewable energy including geothermal heating and cooling systems, solar power, wind energy, biofuels, green investment and government incentives.

GeoExchange BC: Resource Site On Geoexchange Systems
GeoExchange BC industry site has reports & publications, case studies, business opportunities, industry news, articles, events, careers & training, links, speaker service, and more.

GHC: Technical Reports & Articles On Geoexchange Systems
Oregon Institute of Technology Geo Heat Center has reports on aquaculture, cooling, direct use, equipment, greenhouse, heat exchangers, heat pumps, ground water, space & district heating, and more.

IGSHPA: Links To Resources On Geoexchange Systems
International Ground Source Heat Pump Association offers links to resources on energy, environment, geoexchange, software, and more.

IGSHPA: Online Presentations From Ground Source Heat Pump Conferences
International Ground Source Heat Pump Association provides online presentations from the past conferences.

RSES: Purchasable Book On Understanding Geothermal Systems
Refrigeration Service Engineers Society sells Understanding Geothermal Systems, a comprehensive study and resource manual that serves as a best practices guide for the design, installation, and maintenance of geothermal systems. $55 USD

Sonic Drilling: Resource Site On Geothermal
Sonic Drilling geothermal website provides information for contractors, drilling companies, project managers and consumers.
Issues & Performance

CARB: In-Field System Performance Of Residential Ground-Source Heat Pumps
Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research showed ground-source heat pump systems are a viable technology for providing heating and cooling in high-performance, cold-climate homes. When compared to high-efficiency fossil fuel heating equipment (such as a condensing natural gas furnace), all of the monitored systems provide energy cost savings. (PDF)

CCHRC: Ground Source Heat Pumps In Cold Climates
Cold Climate Housing Research Center in Alaska study Ground Source Heat Pumps In Cold Climates shows the COP of the heat pump dropped from 3.6 the first winter to 3.3 the second winter. There was a corresponding drop in the ground temperature. (PDF)

CGC: Clarification Regarding High-Density Polyethylene Pipe
Canadian Geoexchange Coalition document presents an analysis of the different standards covering high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe used in the geothermal industry. (PDF)

CGC: Codes, Standards & Regulations In Canadian Geothermal Heat Pump Industry
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition report summarizes a national consultation conducted to assess the effectiveness of codes, standards and regulations in the Canadian geothermal heat pump industry. (PDF)

CGC: GeoExchange Quality Program
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition developed the Global Quality GeoExchange Program with the goal of ensuring quality geoexchange installations in Canada.

CSA: C448 Series-16 Design & Installation Of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
CSA standard ANSI/CSA C448 SERIES-16 - Design and installation of ground source heat pump systems for commercial and residential buildings contains requirements applicable to any system within the scope of the C448 Series, and has alternative requirements for houses and small buildings.

Fine Homebuilding: Energy Savings Overestimated For Ground Source Heat Pumps
Fine Homebuilding article says a realistic estimate of the COP performance of typical, real-world, installed whole-system ground source heat pumps is about 2. Unfortunately this means that the geothermal heat pump actually will burn significantly more fossil fuel than a high-efficiency gas or oil boiler or furnace.

GBA: Ground Source Heat Pumps Do Not Save Energy
Green Building Advisor article suggests ground-source heat pumps are not necessarily more energy efficient than traditional home heating systems.

Geoexchange BC: Guidelines For Geoexchange Systems In BC
Geoexchange BC has published a series of guidelines to educate key players (developers, owners, coordinating professionals, construction managers, engineers, installers and commissioning teams) on the requirements of a successful geoexchange project. They include User Guide, Site Suitability Guidelines, Design Guidelines, Procurement Guidelines, and Commissioning Guidelines.

NRCan: Canadian Energy Efficiency Regulations For Ground Source Heat Pumps
Natural Resources Canada Office of Energy Efficiency lists the energy efficiency regulations for factory-built ground or water source heat pumps that are single packages or split-systems.

NRCan: Looking For An Energy Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump
Natural Resources Canada provides an overview of ground source heat pumps with links to resources on their energy efficiency.
Procedures

Building Science: Ground Source Heat Pumps For Residential Heating & Cooling
Building Science digest on ground source heat pumps provides some basic information and definitions, offers advice on how to compare the carbon emissions, and defines the climate regions and operating conditions for which GSHP systems are best suited.

CGC: Buyers Guide For Residential Geoexchange Systems
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition online guide covers introduction to geoexchange, systems for new & existing homes, contractor selection, maintenance, troubleshooting, glossary, and sources of more information. (PDF)

CMHC: Study Of Geothermal Retrofit Option For Multifamily Buildings
Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation 2003 study of heat pump based retrofit options for electrically heated apartment buildings. (PDF)

ECW: Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump For Large Buildings
Energy Center of Wisconsin describes how installing a hybrid geothermal heat pump system can reduce the cost of implementing geothermal heating and cooling on your commercial building project. A hybrid system reduces the peak capacity of your ground loop, letting you install a smaller, less expensive ground heat exchanger. (PDF)

GBA: Is Ground-Source Heat Pump Best Bet For Energy Retrofit?
Green Building Advisor discusses the cost and suitability of a ground-source heat pump in a house with an energy retrofit on the horizon.

Geothermie: Ground Sources & Loops For Geoexchange Systems
Geothermie a European site describes geoexchange ground loop systems that link the heat pump to the earth and allow for extraction of heat from the ground or injection of heat into the ground.

HPAC Magazine: Geo-Solar Connection
HPAC magazine describes how the shift between when the energy is available and when it is needed, allows combinations of solar thermal hardware and geothermal heat pumps to be complementary.

HyGCHP: Free Software Tool Compares Geothermal Options
HyGCHP (Hybrid Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps) free software developed by the Energy Center of Wisconsin is an easy-to-use, but sophisticated method of analyzing hybrid geothermal configurations. It helps users investigate several configurations of geothermal systems, including conventional geothermal systems and hybrid options. It helps determine how much money a building owner can save, helps select optimal sizes for the equipment, compares different hybrid geothermal approaches, and analyzes the effects of different control strategies.

NGWA: Q & A On Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
National Ground Water Association contains these Geothermal Heat Pump System questions & answers which may come in handy. If there is a water well, it may be used for the geoexchange ground loop placement.

NRCan: Residential Earth Energy Systems - A Buyer's Guide
Natural Resources Canada guide provides homeowners with the information they need to plan for the purchase of an earth energy heat pump system in a new or existing home, including an introduction as well as sections on contractor selection, maintenance, troubleshooting, installation checklist, glossary and conversion factors. (PDF)

ORNL: Foundation Heat Exchangers For Ground Loop
Oak Ridge National Laboratory report Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool investigates reducing the cost of horizontal closed-loop ground heat exchangers by installing them in the construction excavations, augmented when necessary with additional trenches. The potential cost savings comes from using the construction excavations for the installation of ground heat exchangers, thereby minimizing the need and expense of digging additional trenches. (PDF)

Plumbing & HVAC: Direct Exchange Geothermal Heating & Cooling
Plumbing & HVAC magazine says a small but growing group of installers are focusing on direct exchange geothermal, or DX for short.

PM Engineer: Control Of Heat Pumps With Radiant
PM Engineer describes simple control strategies for heat pumps with radiant heating and cooling.

RETScreen: Free LCC & Project Analysis Software
Natural Resources Canada offers the free RETScreen International Clean Energy Project Analysis Software decision support tool that can be used worldwide to evaluate the energy production and savings, life-cycle costs, emission reductions, financial viability and risk for various types of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies.

US DOE: Monitoring Results Of Ground Source Heat Pumps With Integrated DHW
US Department of Energy report Residential Ground Source Heat Pumps with Integrated Domestic Hot Water Generation: Performance Results from Long-Term Monitoring describes how a ground source heat pump desuperheater can potentially reduce energy consumption where the heat pump from the space conditioning system creates hot water. It discusses instrumentation methods and field operation characteristics of the GSHPs, compares manufacturers' values of the coefficients of performance calculated from field measured data for the two GSHPs, and compares the measured efficiency of the desuperheater system to other domestic hot water systems. (PDF)

US DOE: Planning & Installing Geothermal Heat Pumps
Building America online Solution Center provides information about geothermal heat pumps including an overview of technology and guidance on compliance and installation.

US DOE: Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance In Cold Climate
US Department of Energy report Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. (PDF)
Product Supply

ASHRAE BC: Economics Of Commercial Ground Loop Water Source Heat Pump Systems
ASHRAE BC online slide show presentation discusses economics of commercial ground loop water source heat pump systems. (PDF)

CGC: Canadian Financial Assistance For Geoexchange
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition provgides information on what current financial assistance, programs and tax incentives are available for geoexchange across Canada.

CGC: Cost Of Heating With A Geoexchange System
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition online calculator estimates the cost of heating your home and hot water with a geoexchange heating system.

CGC: Costs & Energy Savings Of Geoexchange
Canadian GeoExchange Coalition provides a Q & A on cost and energy savings of a Geoexchange system.

Ecohome: Choosing Between Ground & Air Source Heat Pumps
Ecohome says as a general rule ground source heat pumps may be better for very large homes and those in very cold climates. Air source are definitely more cost effective in small, efficient homes and any moderately sized home in temperate climates.

EESC: Canadian Chart Of Energy Savings With Geoexchange
Earth Energy Society of Canada gives you examples of average system costs, energy savings variables and projections for geoexchange in various Canadian cities.

Geoexchange BC: Service Directory Of Geoexchange Industry
GeoExchange BC provides a service directory which lists drillers, installers, contractors, consultants, manufacturers, engineers, utilities, organizations, and more, with their current contact information.

IGSHPA: Directory Of Geoexchange Suppliers, Installers & Members
International Ground Sources Heat Pump Association offers a search for Accredited Installers, Certified Geoexchange Designers, trainers, and association members.
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