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Basics & Theory

Energy Vanguard: 3 Types of Heat From Heat Pumps
Energy Vanguard says more people are using heat pumps these days, even in cold climates. They spell out the three different types of heat that conventional heat pumps provide.

Energy Vanguard: These Ain't Yer Grandpappy's Heat Pumps
Energy Vanguard says an NESEA Building Energy conference gave reasons why a lot of people in the cold climate of New England love heat pumps.

Energy Vanguard: What's the Name of The Outdoor Part of a Heat Pump?
Energy Vanguard looks at the basic terminology of air conditioning and heat pump systems.

HVAC School: HVAC/R Refrigerant Cycle Basics
HVAC School provides a basic overview of the refrigeration circuit and how it works. It is designed to assist a new technician or HVAC/R apprentice in understanding the fundamentals.

IEA HPC: Overview Of Heat Pump Technology
IEA Heat Pump Center gives general information about heat pumping technology. It explains why this technology is beneficial, how it works and what typical applications are. It also tells you about different types of heat pumps and different working fluids.

IRC: Report On Heat Pumps For Residential Heating
Canadian Institute for Research in Construction report has a good description of air source heat pumps, their performance, and comparison of costs with electric furnace. 1978

REW: Overview Of Geothermal Heat Pumps
Renewable Energy World article outlines how different types of heat pumps function and some of their main applications.
Information Sources

NRCan: Types Of Heating Equipment & Controls
Natural Resource Canada describes various types of residential heating systems and controls.

US DOE: Types Of Heat Pump Systems
US Department of Energy provides information on types of heat pump systems.
Issues & Performance

Energy Vanguard: Why Does My Heat Pump Frost Over?
Energy Vanguard describes why the outdoor unit of a heat pump will occasionally grow frost around the outside of the unit when it's in heating mode.

GBA: Low Carbon Footprint Of Minisplits
Green Building Advisor describes why heating with a minisplit heat pump is greener than heating with fossil fuels.

NIST: Analysis Of Installation Faults On Heat Pump Performance
US National Institute of Standards and Technology study Sensitivity Analysis of Installation Faults on Heat Pump Performance found that substantial equipment efficiency is lost due to design and installation deficiencies. It presents faulty practices commonly-performed by contractors and details the resultant additional energy consumption. (PDF)

P&M: You Don't Pay for COPs
Plumbing and Mechanical says COPs for heat pumps, like AFUE values for boilers and SEER ratings for air conditioners, are often presented as numbers that energy-conscious consumers should be very excited about. Thatís understandable from a sales perspective. However, the numbers that count are those your clients will see on their utility bills, and thereís no line item on those bills for COP.

PM Engineer: Comparing Heat Pump COPs
PM Engineer says the measure of a heat pumpís heating performance is called coefficient of performance (COP). Itís the ratio of useful heat output divided by required energy input, where both the output and input are expressed in the same physical units.

Energy Vanguard: Benefit Of Heat Pumps & Hydronics
Energy Vanguard says heat pumps and hydronics are a great team for high performance homes.

Energy Vanguard: Shocking Truth About Heat Pumps
Energy Vanguard says the shocking truth about heat pumps is that they might well be a great fit for your home, or they might not. It depends. Are your priorities low energy bills, environmentally friendly energy sources, uniform heating with lower temperatures or short blasts of higher temperatures?

Energy Vanguard: Two Ways to Change Heat Pump Balance Point
Energy Vanguard describes two factors that can affect the heat pump balance point.

GBA: Backing Up a Minisplit Heating System
Green Building Advisor discusses considerations for using ceiling resistance heaters to supplement minisplits.

HGTV Remodels: 10 Key Features Of Heat Pump Systems
HGTV Remodels describes 10 key features of heat pump heating and cooling systems.

HVAC School: Basic Maintenance for Residential Electric Heat Pump
HVAC School lists the basic maintenance steps they use for residential electric heat pump systems.

NRCan: Free Heat Pump Pre-Screening Tool
NRCan free Heat Pump Pre-Screening Tool is software that provides rapid assessments of heat pump systems for a specific set of building parameters, with minimal input requirements. This means that feasibility studies can be better justified and focused on only the most promising technologies for a given multi-family or commercial project.

NRCan: Heating & Cooling With Heat Pump
Natural Resourses Canada Office of Energy Efficiency supplies information on both air-source and ground-source heat pumps and related equipment (including thermostats).

P&M: Outdoor Reset Control & Heat Pumps
Plumbing & Mechanical describes how to maximize both the heating capacity and COP of heat pumps using outdoor reset control.
Product Supply

NRCan: Search For Heat Pump Products & Ratings
Natural Resources Canada provides online search for heat pump brands and their energy efficiency ratings.
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