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Basics & Theory

Advanced Energy: Lighting Your House
Advanced Energy provides some history of energy efficient lighting and describes the variety of bulbs and their features.

American Lighting Association: Different Types Of Light Sources
American Lighting Association article gives an overview of different types of bulbs avaiable as light sources, including halogen incandescent, compact fluorescent and LED.

Architect Magazine: Lowdown on LED Lights
Architect Magazine describes why LED ultra-efficient bulbs are the future of lighting.

BC Hydro: A Few Things You Should Know About LEDs
BC Hydro describes some key features and benefits of LED light bulbs.

BC Hydro: Fact Sheet On Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
BC Hydro provides fact sheet on compact fluorescent light bulbs including sections on what shape and size you should use, replacement guide chart, savings and convenience, where to install, read the manufacturer's label and CFL recycling. (PDF)

BC Hydro: Indoor Lighting Types & Savings
BC Hydro describes various types of light bulbs and controls, along with their features, benefits, and energy savings. (PDF)

BC Hydro: LEDs For Pot Lights, Sconces & Vanities
A BC Hydro Power Smart lighting engineer offers updates on LED lighting for applications beyond the basic bulb.

Builder Magazine: LED Lighting May Replace Incandescent Bulb
Builder Magazine article says new light-emitting diode (or LED) lighting is emerging and manufacturers say it offers more promise than CFLs.

Buildipedia: Introduction To LED Lighting
Buildipedia describes LED lighting as an energy and cost efficient option that allows for more creative applications than traditional lighting.

Ecohome: LED Bulb Choices & DIY Lighting Fixture Tips
Ecohome online video shows how to choose LED bulbs and offers some DIY installation tips.

GBA: LED Lighting Getting Better & Better
Green Building Advisor describes how light quality and long-term performance of LED lighting, from some manufacturers, is improving rapidly.

Healthy Heating: Overview Of LED Light
Healthy Heating describes features and considerations for LED lighting for residential applications.

LED Bulbs UK: Beginner's Guide To LED Bulb Bases
LED Bulbs UK provides an overview of the most relevant and useful LED bulb base types for home use.

Lighting Design Lab: Introduction To LED Lighting
Lighting Design Lab provides informaion on what LEDS are and how they work.

Lowes: Buying Guide For Light Bulbs
Lowes site has a light bulb buying guide with pictures of all common types of light bulbs including incandescent, fluorescent, compact fluorescent and halogen.

NRCan: Basic Facts About Residential Lighting
Natural Resources Canada provides an overview of residential lighting including colour temperature, lumens & watts, Energy Star, light bulb types, and torchieres. (PDF)

NRCan: Energy Efficient Light Bulbs
Natural Resources Canada describes light bulbs that have a variety of performance characteristics, shapes and sizes, light outputs (brightness), light appearances (colour temperatures) and levels of energy efficiency.

NRCan: Enlighten Yourself About Energy Efficient Light Bulbs
NRCan offers a quick online reference guide to the main types of light bulbs that are available to consumers, including halogen, compact fluorescent and LED. They describe various performance characteristics that you need to know to pick the right bulb for the job. (PDF)

Remodeling: LED Selection Tips For Remodelers
Remodeling magazine says LED ultra-efficient bulbs are the future of lighting, and remodelers have a learning curve to ensure they use the right bulb in the right place.

US DOE: History Of The Light Bulb
US Department of Energy describes the evolution of light bulbs, from incandescent to fluorescents to LEDs.

US DOE: LED Colour Characteristics
US Department of Energy describes light and color basics and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

US DOE: Types Of Lighting
US Department of Energy describes types of lighting including fluorescent, high-intensity discharge, incandescent, low-pressure sodium, outdoor solar, and LED (light-emitting diodes).
Industry Information

Stats Canada: Use of Energy-Saving Lights, Canada & Provinces
Statistics Canada online database show the amount of use of energy-saving lights in Canada and the provinces.
Information Sources

Power Smart: Resource Site On LED Lighting
Power Smart provides information and resources on LED lighting.

US DOE: 2014 Solid-State Lighting Market Development Workshop Presentations
US Department of Energy provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2014 Solid-State Lighting Market Development Workshop.

US DOE: Resource Site On LED Solid-State Lighting
US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy offers information and resources on LED lighting including basics, applications, measurement, and more.
Issues & Performance

BC Gov: New BC Light Bulb Standards Take Effect January 1, 2011
BC Government new standards for energy-efficient alternatives to 75W and 100W incandescent light bulbs will come into force on Jan. 1, 2011. BC retailers can continue to carry the old incandescent 75 and 100W bulbs until their stock runs out.

BC Hydro: Dispelling Myths About CFLs
BC Hydro provides responses to some myths about CFL light bulbs including CFLs increase greenhouse gas emissions, mercury in CFLs can be harmful to your health, and CFLs emit UV rays harmful to your health.

BC Hydro: Why Some LEDs Last Longer Than Others
BC Hydro says LEDs are celebrated for their excellent energy efficiency and longevity. So it's fair to be frustrated when they fall short. Here's how that can happen.

BCSEA: Ten Myths About New Efficient Light Bulbs
BC Sustainable Energy Association offers responses to myth-making going on about compact fluorescent bulbs.

BOMA Canada: Diverting Light Bulbs that Contain Mercury
BOMA Canada says light bulbs containing mercury require special disposal to keep them out of landfills, and they list different options available to dispose of these bulbs depending on where you live.

Building Green: Damaged CFLs Emit Higher UV
Building Green describes research that showed most bulbs examined, regardless of brand or store, had defects and UV emissions. Use of the average damaged bulb at a range of about one foot is the equivalent of sunbathing at the equator in terms of UVA, which oxidizes skin cells and penetrates deep into skin.

CMHC: Overall Home Energy Savings Of CFL Lighting
CMHC research evaluated the overall energy impact of compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) on total house energy consumption. It showed energy efficient lighting systems do affect pace-conditioning requirements as during the heating season they increase spaceheating energy use, and during cooling season they reduce space cooling demand and energy requirements. 2008 (PDF)

CSA: C22.2 NO. 1993-17 Tri-national Harmonized Standard For Self-ballasted Lamps
CSA sells the C22.2 NO. 1993-17, Self-Ballasted Lamps and Lamp Adapters standard that includes new minimum material specification for the plastic housing and several additional end-of-life product tests that better simulate potential failure modes. It is tri-national and harmonized with UL 1993 and the Mexican NMX-J-578/1-ANCE standard. $505 USD

CSA: CSA C861-10 Standard For Performance Of Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Canadian Standards Association standard CAN/CSA-C861-10 specifies performance requirements and related test procedures for evaluating self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and ballasted adapters that are intended for general lighting use with 120 V, 60 Hz power and that use an E26 or larger screwbase. $150 CDN

Energy Star: Learn About LED Lighting
Energy Star provides information and resources on LED Lighting, including the basics; what are LEDs and how do they work?; lifetime of LED lighting products; where to use LED bulbs; LEDs and heat; how is LED lighting different?; why should I choose ENERGY STAR® certified LED lighting products?

Fine Homebuilding: Phantom Flickering Fluorescent Bulbs
Fine Homebuilding says static electricity, leaky dimmer switches, or one of several sources of electromagnetic radiation may be to blame for occasional flashes of light from fluorescent fixtures that are switched off.

GBA: Reprieve For Incandescent Bulb?
Green Building Advisor says researchers have tweaked conventional incandescents to make the bulbs far more efficient.

Health Canada: No Hazard From CFL Ultraviolet Radiation And Electric & Magnetic Fields
Health Canada report Survey of Ultraviolet Radiation and Electric and Magnetic Fields from Compact Fluorescent Lamps put to rest any speculation that CFLs cause harm to the general public. (PDF)

Health Canada: Safety Of Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Health Canada offers information on the safety of compact fluorescent lamps including background, health risks, minimizing your risk, and sources of more information. (PDF)

NEMA: ANSI C78.5-2017 Specifications For Performance Of Self-Ballasted Compact Fluorescent Lamps
ANSI C78.5-2017 American National Standard for Electric Lamps: Specifications for Performance of Self-Ballasted Compact Fluorescent Lamps, specifies performance requirements together with test methods and conditions required to show compliance of self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamps up to 60 Watts that are intended for domestic and similar general lighting purposes. $59 USD

NEMA: Failure Modes For Self Ballasted Compact Fluorescent Lamps
National Electrical Manufacturer Association update addresses concern that self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamps (SBCFLs) may present a possible safety hazard when they reach the end of useful life. Free registration required.

NRCan: 2014 Amendment To Energy Efficiency Regulations For Lighting Products
Natural Resources Canada Amendment 12B revises Canada's minimum energy performance standards for general service incandescent lamps (light bulbs); the standards are aligned with the United States.

NRCan: Canadian Energy Efficiency Regulations For Incandescent Lamps
Natural Resources Canada describes Canada's Energy Efficiency Regulations for general service incandescent reflector lamps.

NRCan: Energy Star Standards For Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Natural Resources Canada lists requirements for Energy Star qualifying criteria for compact fluorescent lamps, Version 3.0 - October 2003, including scope, definitions, reference standards from various standards bodies, technical requirements, certification, qualification, private labelling products, labelling and packaging, quality assurance, effective date, and future criteria. (PDF)

NRCan: Energy Star Technical Specifications For Lighting Products
Natural Resources Canada describes Energy Star technical specifications for lighting products, including lighting fixtures, compact fluorescent lamps, decorative light strings, LED luminaires, and LED lamps-integral. Select the product from the Lighting Products section half-way down the page.

NRCan: FAQ On New Canadian Standards For Light Bulbs
Natural Resources Canada provides answers to frequently asked questions about Canada's new standard for efficient light bulbs.

The Climate Group: Report On LED Energy Savings
The Climate Groups Lighting the Clean Revolution study concludes that LEDs achieve 50% to 70% energy savings compared to conventional lighting, and savings can be as high as 80% when LEDs are coupled with smart controls. The report is the result of a two-and-a-half-year pilot program, called LightSavers, which tested 533 LED lamps in 15 trials in 12 cities, including New York, London, Hong Kong, Toronto, and Sydney. (PDF)

UL: Compact Fluorescent Lamps Are Safe
Underwriters Laboratories results from its compact fluorescent lamp safety study found consumers may be able to use CFLs more broadly and safely than previously believed or understood. UL's CFL Safety Study found no fire or shock hazards in CFLs when used in light fixtures, lighting controllers and switches traditionally used with incandescent light bulbs.

US DOE: High-Efficacy LED Luminaires
US Department of Energy evaluated performance of several new light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products with claimed efficacies near or exceeding 200 lumens per Watt (lm/W). The purpose of the study was to validate the claimed efficacy, determine the features or characteristics the products had in common, and identify any performance tradeoffs in luminaires reaching this very high efficacy level.

US DOE: Life-Cycle Energy Consumption Of Incandescent, CFL, LED Lamps
US Department of Energy report Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, and LED Lamps, assesses the life-cycle environmental and resource costs in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of LED lighting products in relation to comparable traditional lighting technologies. (PDF)

US DOE: Overview Of Changes In US Lighting Regulations
US Department of Energy describes new efficiency standards for light bulbs that will take effect from 2012 to 2014, as many traditional incandescent bulbs will not meet the new standards and will no longer be available for purchase.

US DOE: Testing & Reports On Performance Of Solid-State Lighting
US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) program supports testing of a wide array of SSL products available for general illumination. DOE allows its test results to be distributed in the public interest for noncommercial, educational purposes only.

US EPA: CFL Energy Savings Outweigh Mercury Hazard
US Environmental Protection Agency says benefits of lower energy consumption of CFLs outweigh disadvantages but EPA promotes and encourages the safe disposal of old CFLs to prevent the release of mercury into the environment.

US EPA: Establishing a Recycling Program for Mercury-Containing Light Bulbs
US Environmental Protection Agency offers information on establishing a recycling program for mercury-containing light bulbs, including the steps that businesses can undertake to properly manage used univeral waste lamps.

US EPA: FAQ On Light Bulbs That Contain Mercury
US Environmental Protection Agency answers common questions about CFLs and other light bulbs that contain mercury. (PDF)

Architect Magazine: Recent Advances in LED Lighting Technology
Architect Magazine describes improvements to solid state lighting that have resulted in smaller, more versatile, and more efficient diodes that have helped transform architectural lighting and design.

BC Hydro: Upgrade Ballasts Along With Fluorescent Lighting
Power Smart says switching to electronic light ballasts means no more hum, less flicker, longer lamp life and lower electricity bills.

BD&C: LED Lighting's Risks & Rewards
Building Design & Constriction says LED lighting technology provides unique advantages, but it's also important to understand its limitations for optimized application.

GBA: How to Wire for LED Lighting
Green Building Advisor describes issues and considerations for wiring a house with all low-load LED fixtures.

GBA: Ten Steps To Clean Up A Broken CFL
Green Building Advisor says a broken compact fluorescent lamp isn’t exactly hazardous waste, but it does call for special steps.

Home Energy Magazine: Accidentally Breaking A CFL Is Not Mayhem
Home Energy Magazine describes a study that illustrates long-term exposure to mercury from a broken CFL poses a minuscule risk, and no risk at all if simple cleanup guidelines are followed.

IEC: Think Lumens Not Watts For Light Bulbs
International Electrotechnical Commission says when you look at the replacements for incandescent bulbs, don't think of wattage. Instead, look at packages and read the Lumen output to estimate the light strength you can expect.

NRCan: Choosing Energy Efficient Lighting Equipment
Natural Resources Canada provides an introduction and tips for selection of energy efficient lighting.

Product Care Recycling: BC Lighting Product Recycling Program
Product Care Recycling, previously known as LightRecycle is a non-profit program to recycle lighting products in British Columbia. Our light recycling program was established in BC in 2010 in response to recycling regulations and requirements for mercury-containing bulbs in Canada. The program has since expanded to Manitoba, Quebec, and Prince Edward Island. Lighting fixtures including string lights and ballasts are only accepted in British Columbia.

Smarter House: Choosing the Right Light Bulb
Smarter House describes each of the major considerations involved in selecting the right bulb for each type of light fixture.

US DOE: Compare Lumens When Selecting Light Bulbs
US Department of Energy online video shows how to compare lumens to be sure you're getting the right amount of light, or level of brightness, when shopping for light bulbs.

US DOE: Tips On Energy Efficient Lighting
Department of Energy provides tips on types and selection of energy efficient lighting.
Product Supply

Architect Magazine: 9 New LED Products For Indoor & Outdoor Applications
Architect Magazine describes nine lamps, light sources, and luminaires that round out some of the innovative products to incorporate LED technology during 2015.

BC Hydro: Are LEDs Or Fluorescents Best Choice For Your Business?
BC Hydro lighting expert Cristian Suvagau offers advice on best applications for LEDs and fluorescents for a business.

BC Hydro: Comparison Chart On Operating Costs For Lighting
BC Hydro online chart compares the features and costs of different lighting options including incandescent, LED, CFL, and halogen.

BC Hydro: Comparison Of Lighting Types
BC Hydro online chart compares the features and costs of different lighting options including incandescent, LED, CFL, and halogen. (PDF)

BC Hydro: Select The Right CFL For Your Business
BC Hydro describes what to look for when choosing the right CFL lights for your business application.

Builder Magazine: New Lighting Laws Bring Incandescent Alternatives
Builder magazine takes a look at CFL, LED, and halogen incandescent bulbs.

EarthTechling: Best LED Light Bulbs of 2019
EarthTechling chose their best LED bulbs of 2019 based on price, company reputation, and customer reviews.

Energitix: Comparing LEDs, CFLs, Incandescents
Energitix online comparison chart illustrates the value of the latest LED bulbs when compared with CFLs and incandescents for overall efficiency as well as cost-effectiveness. (PDF)

Energy Star: Guide To Choosing Energy Efficient Light Bulbs
Energy star describes different types of energy efficient light bulbs, and give tips for choosing the right bulb for various lighting fixtures.

Open4Energy: How To Select Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Open4Energy describes things to consider when selecting CFL for various applications.

TCP: Online Calculator For Energy Savings Of Energy Efficient Lighting Systems
TCP online calculator shows you how much energy and money can be saved by switching to an energy efficient lighting system.
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