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Codes & Regulations

BC Gov: New BC Wood First Initiative
Province of British Columbia new Wood First Initiative aims to promote use of BC wood products. The Act requires wood to be considered as the primary building material in all new publicly-funded buildings, such as schools, libraries or sports complexes.
Discolouration

CWC: Blue Stain & Construction Lumber
Canadian Wood Council describes blue stain, a common stain fungus sometimes seen on construction lumber, pine in particular, with streaked blue, black or grey markings. Blue Stain is considered effectively harmless to one's health, and does not detract from the use of lumber in building construction. (PDF)

CWC: Discolouration On Wood Products
Canadian Wood Council describes causes and implications of discolorations on wood products. (PDF)

JLC: Fixing A Ceiling Stain
Journal of Light Construction discusses whether or not you can ever make a stain in yellowed ceiling boards disappear.

US Forest Products: Understanding Extractive Bleeding
US Forest Products Committee explains that cedar applications may experience the appearance of extractive bleeding (caused by moisture reacting with tannins to cause stains on natural wood). Installation of sealed cedar products with an approved rainscreen assembly deters the appearance of extractives, leading to less maintenance and refinishing issues. (PDF)
Durability & Decay

APA: Controlling Decay In Wood Construction
Engineered Wood Association technical note Controlling Decay in Wood Construction provides an overview of preventing and minimizing degradation of wood through proper design, storage, construction and maintenance details. Free site registration required.

Building Science: Wood Durability Within Building Environments
Building Science research report puts durability of wood in the proper context - the environmental context in which we ask it to perform, including temperature, humidity, rain and the interior climate. (PDF)

CWC: Overview Of Wood Decay
Canadian Wood Council describes wood decay and various causes.

CWC: Resources On Durability Of Wood
Canadian Wood Council & Forintek Canada joint resource site provides info on wood heritage, durability hazards, durability solutions, pressure treated wood, non-pressure treated wood, FAQ, publications, an links to more.

Fine Homebuilding: How Wood Rots
Fine Homebuilding says wood rot is caused by decay fungi that grow when the following conditions are present: temperatures between 40 and 105 degrees Fahrenheit, a wood moisture content 30% or greater, and sufficient food. There are two types of rot, brown rot and white rot, each of which is caused by a different fungus and displays different characteristics. (PDF)

JLC: What Is Dry Rot?
Journal of Light Construction says we may call it dry rot, but fungus needs water to attack wood, grow, and spread.

Woodworks: Designing For Durability With Wood
WoodWorks describes strategies for achieving maximum durability with wood-frame construction. (PDF)
Fire Resistance

CWC: Wood Fire Safety Information & Procedures
Canadian Wood Council provides information on fire safety including introduction, fire resistance, fire-retardant treated wood, flame spread, roof coverings, sprinkler alternatives, and wood in noncombustible buildings.
Green & Sustainable

APA: Reducing Environmental Footprints With Wood
Engineered Wood Association provides results of an environmental impact analysis of wood versus concrete house designs. Free site registration required.

BC Gov: BC Carbon Calculator For Harvested Wood Products
BC Ministry of Forests free Carbon Calculator For Harvested Wood Products is a spreadsheet tool that can be used by resource professionals, architects, designers, and people interested in carbon offset projects to determine carbon emissions generated from harvested wood products. Note that the links to this tool and its guide are part way down the page in the In-house Science, Research and Reporting section.

BDC: Using Wood For Sustainable Design & Construction
Building Design & Construction magazine article describes attributes of wood materials that apply to green building, sustainable design considerations, environmental merits of wood, and alternative material choices.

CWC: Carbon Fact Sheet On Wood
Canadian Wood Council says a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks while producing timber, fibre, or energy, generates the largest sustained benefit to mitigate climate change. (PDF)

CWC: Energy & Environment In Wood-Framed Homes
Canadian Wood Council online report Energy & The Environment provides new life-cycle assessment data and offers an updated comparison study by presenting data for both the embodied energy and operating energy of three 2,400 sq. ft. single-family homes. (PDF)

CWC: Environmental Product Declarations For North American Wood Products
Canadian Wood Council and American Wood Council have released environmental product declarations for North American wood products including softwood lumber, plywood, oriented strand board, wood I-joists, glue-laminated lumber, and more.

Dovetail: Wood Recycling Provisions In North American Green Building Programs
Dovetail report An Examination of Wood Recycling Provisions in North American Green Building Programs examines green building programs, model codes, and standards to identify provisions targeting wood re-use and recycling. (PDF)

FAO Forestry: Forests & Climate Change: A Convenient Truth
Online video presentation, produced by FAO and the Forestry Commission of the United Kingdom, shows how much forests can contribute to the mitigation of climate change, stressing the importance of reversing forest loss.

Forest Info: Environmental Educational Resources On Forestry
Forest Info provides forestry-related environmental education resources for students, teachers, forestry professionals and those with a general interest in protecting, managing, and enhancing the natural environment.

FPAC: Forest Products Site On Sustainability
Forest Products Association of Canada site helps consumers and businesses understand how they can make a difference by choosing wood products that are harvested from well managed, sustainable forests.

Friends of the Earth: Guide For Environmental Choice Of Wood
UK organization Good Wood Guide provides steps to consider to make the best environmental choice when buying or using wood.

Future Science: Impacts Of Wood Utilization On Carbon Mitigation
Future Science paper on Life Cycle Impacts Of Forest Management & Wood Utilization On Carbon Mitigation examines complexities in accounting for carbon emissions given the many different ways that wood is used. It says when designing a new structure, if architects reconsider concrete and steel materials and instead use sustainably harvested wood they reduce the amount of carbon dioxide associated with construction. (PDF)

McGraw-Hill: How Wood Stacks Up In Green Building
McGraw-Hill article says green building rating systems credit wood, but do not recognize its full potential as a sustainable building material.

Naturally Wood: Forest Products Environmental Attributes
Tackle Climate Change, Use Wood is a science-based brochure that highlights forest industry accomplishments with respect to climate change, and examines environmental attributes of Canadian forest products - wood, pulp and paper, biomass - and positive role products sourced from responsible sources can play in mitigating climate change. (PDF)

Rainforest Alliance: Possible LEED Credits For FSC Wood Usage
Forest Stewardship Council accreditation organization list the possible LEED For Homes credits from using FSC green building construction products. (PDF)

Rainforest Alliance: Smart Guide To Green Building Wood Sources
Accredited certifier of the Forest Stewardship Council provides a listing and contact information for suppliers of green building wood products including cabinets & casework, decking, doors & windows, engineered wood, exterior applications, flooring, framing lumber, millwork, office furniture, and plywood. (PDF)

Rethink Wood: Evaluating Carbon Footprint Of Wood Buildings
Rethink Wood continuing education publication Evaluating the Carbon Footprint of Wood Buildings covers the natural cycle of carbon absorption and storage, the role of wood products sourced from sustainably managed forests, low embodied energy of wood products, and the carbon benefits of example buildings based on the results of two calculators. (PDF)

Rethink Wood: Wood & Environmental Product Declarations
Rethink Wood online course Wood and Environmental Product Declarations explains how an Environmental Product Declaration gives a decision maker an immediate, reliable, and non-judgmental way to evaluate wood's environmental impacts over its life cycle. (PDF)

The Most Natural Resource: Resource Site On Wood Sustainability
The Most Natural Resource site lays out the case for wood construction over steel, concrete and bricks. Innovative Wood Products Collaborative notes that as timber grows, it soaks up carbon dioxide. That carbon is stored in wood products, a carbon sink that mitigates climate change.

Tyee: War Over Eco-Certified Wood
British Columbia Tyee newspaper articles outlines the battle between the two largest rival forestry certification non profit organizations in the world: the industry-created Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI), and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which was conceived by a coalition of North American environmental activists.

US FPL: Reclaimed Lumber & Wood Flooring In Construction
US Forest Product Laboratory research results indicate that reclaimed framing lumber and wood flooring have a significantly lower environmental impact than their two virgin alternatives.

USFS: Economic & Environmental Benefits Of Using Wood In Green Building
US Forest Service study Science Supporting the Economic and Environmental Benefits of Using Wood and Wood Products in Green Building Construction indicates that wood should factor as a primary building material in green building. The authors reviewed scientific literature and found that using wood in building products yields fewer greenhouse gases than using other common materials. (PDF)

Woodworks: Carbon Implications Of Construction Material Selection
Woodworks online video Carbon Implications of Construction Material Selection examines carbon implications of building material selection using examples of real world projects and material comparisons to show how using wood can reduce a building's carbon footprint. Other topics will include tools for assessing carbon liberation, carbon equivalency, fossil vs. atmospheric carbon, CO2 sequestration, and implications of potential cap and trade legislation and the Kyoto process for materials selection and building design.

Woodworks: Green Building Programs & Wood Products
Woodworks online continuing education course Green Building and Wood Products examines key green building rating programs and how wood building materials and components are rated within each. Increased reliance on LCA and environmental product declarations (EPDs), and the implications for wood construction, are also explored. (PDF)

WoodWorks: High-Performance Wood Structures Save Energy
WoodWorks online slide show presentation High-Performance Wood Structures: An Example of Increased Efficiency in Multi Family Construction is case study of a six-story, wood-frame over podium Passive House project that highlights design and construction principles that can reduce energy consumption. (PDF)

WoodWorks: Online Carbon Estimator & Calculator For Wood
WoodWorks online carbon estimator and calculator allow you to calculate your project's carbon footprint.

WoodWorks: Wood and Green Building
WoodWorks bulletin Wood and Green Building says whether you're designing a structure to achieve green building certification, adhere to new energy or climate change legislation, or simply set it apart as superior, wood can help to achieve your sustainability objectives. (PDF)

Woodworks: Wood Solutions For Sustainable Design
Woodworks online slide show presentation on Wood Solutions for Sustainable Design covers development/change in building codes, how rating tools evaluate wood, building materials life cycle assessment, carbon footprinting and the role of wood, identifying and sourcing a diversity of certified wood products, and innovation in structural wood products. (PDF)
Life Cycle Cost

Ecohome: Choosing Between Wood, Concrete, Steel Structures
Ecohome provides a life cycle analysis of the three major materials used as structural support for buildings.
Moisture Content

Fine Homebuilding: Drying Wet Framing Lumber
Fine Homebuilding describes some techniques to dry houses prior to sheetrock.

FP Innovations: Wetting & Drying Of Nail-Laminated Timber Assemblies
FP Innovations report Wetting and Drying Performance of Nail-Laminated Timber Assemblies Nail-laminated timber shows severe wetting leads to elevated moisture content, approaching or exceeding 30% in the core of a NLT member and may require months of drying time. The best practice is to avoid wetting. The report provides test results and describes various on-site protection measures. (PDF)

JLC: Does Flooding Damage Framing Lumber?
Journal of Light Construction says after drying, wood that was exposed to a relatively short but extremely wet period should not lose structural strength.

US DOE: Building Materials With High Moisture Content Not Enclosed
US Department of Energy says if interior walls are enclosed (e.g., with drywall) when framing materials and insulation are wet, the trapped moisture can lead to problems for the home.

Woodworks: Moisture Performance Of Wood As Material, Product, System
Woodworks online slide show presentation Understanding Moisture Performance of Wood as a Material, Product and System covers the effects of moisture on wood used in construction. (PDF)

Woodworks: Moisture Performance Of Wood For Durable Design & Construction
Woodworks online slide show presentation Understanding Moisture Performance of Wood: Introduction to Durable Design and Construction discusses wood’s response to relative humidity and liquid water, providing means to address decay and insect concerns, and reduce the potential for in-service shrinkage and swelling. (PDF)
Mould

JLC: Mould On Framing Lumber
Journal of Light Construction says depending on the situation it might be a good idea either to not install mouldy lumber, or to clean any installed framing that has moulded before close-in.

WWPA: Articles On Mold & Wood Products
Western Wood Products Association online articles on mould and wood include what mould is, peventing and controlling mould, and cleaning mould on wood.

WWPA: Mold Housing & Wood
Western Wood Products Association article addresses some common questions about mold and wood.
Shrinkage

CWC: Basics Of Vertical Movement In Wood Platform Frame Structures
Canadian Wood Council online Basics Of Vertical Movement In Wood Platform Frame Structures document illustrates the causes and other basic information related to vertical movement in wood platform frame buildings and recommendations on material handling and construction sequencing to protect wood from rain and reduce the vertical movement. (PDF)

CWC: Design & Detailing Solutions For Vertical Movement In Wood Platform Frame Structures
Canadian Wood Council online Design & Detailing Solutions For Vertical Movement In Wood Platform Frame Structures helps designers to identify and address locations where potential differential movement could affect structural integrity and serviceability. (PDF)

CWC: Design Tips For Wood Shrinkage
Canadian Wood Council offers design tips for wood shrinkage. (PDF)

CWC: Vertical Movement Predictions In Wood Platform Frame Structures
Canadian Wood Council online Vertical Movement Predictions In Wood Platform Frame Structures describes how to estimate the vertical movement to avoid structural, serviceability, and building envelope problems over the life of the structure. (PDF)

Wood Central: Shrinkage Values Of Domestic Woods
Wood Central provides facts about moisture-shrinkage relationship of wood, and a table of shrinkage values for North American hardwoods and softwoods.

Woodweb: Online Calculator For Wood Shrinkage
Woodweb provides an online calculator for wood shrinkage.

Woodworkers Source: Online Calculator For Wood Dimensional Change
Woodworkers Source online calculator for dimensional change in wood can be used for both single wood member and wall modules.

WoodWorks: Detailing For Wood Shrinkage
WoodWorks online slide show presentation Detailing For Wood Shrinkage examines shrinkage associated with wall and floor design, and demonstrate how to minimize effects of both shrinkage and differential movement with proper detailing. It describes how to prevent shrinkage induced construction issues such as drywall cracking, window frame wracking, and compromised plumbing lines. (PDF)
Termites

Massachusetts Univ: Controlling Carpenter Ants & Termites In Wood
University of Massachusetts Building Materials & Wood Technology site, offers tech report on inspecting for and controlling carpenter ants and termites.
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